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what is the grounding problem

The weakness of the argument becomes apparent once we understand how the modal is grounded in the non- modal. But the kind of grounding being touted now by some naturopathic websites and doctors goes further than that. Following Wechsler and Zlatić (The Many Faces of Agreement, CSLI Publications, 2003), person features exist only as features of referential indices (Index phi features), never as grammatical head features of the sort that are involved in adjective-noun concord (Concord phi features). This article offers a novel solution to the problem of material constitution: by including non-concrete objects among the parts of material objects, we can avoid having a statue and its constituent piece of clay composed of all the same proper parts. I attempt to show that this 'opacity' defence has intolerable consequences for the functioning of our language and that the original argument should therefore be allowed to stand. Philosophy)--University of Waikato, 1985. The project of this book is to persuade the reader that systematic principles by means of which composition can be restricted can be found, and hence, that we need not embrace this deflationary approach to the question of what it means to be an object. In this paper, I provide a solution to this problem that does not require such a revision. This paper defends the possibility of such coincidence against the main argument to the contrary, the 'Indiscernibility Argument'. The Boeing 737 MAX has been the company’s fastest selling model in its history — with 5,123 planes ordered by airlines as of … Call those who think there are at least two things before you in such a case pluralists . targets, while non-person-agreeing targets such as predicate adjectives vary across languages, between syntactic and semantic number agreement. In short, no clearly adequate statement of a Grounding Problem is extant, and there is some reason to believe that the pluralist can overcome any Grounding Problem that we haven’t thought of yet. What causes the humming in audio systems ? I argue (i) that explanatory demands that are Le concept de légitimité, tout comme ceux de subsidiarité, de transparence, de démocratie, d’efficience ou de solidarité, est intimement lié au débat politique ainsi qu’aux formulations juridiques de l’Union européenne (UE). Monists hold that they are identical; pluralists that they are distinct. Non-concrete objects—objects that aren’t concrete, but possibly are—have been used (by Bernard Linsky, Ed Zalta and Timothy Williamson) in defense of the claim that everything necessarily exists. Improper grounding can create a lethal hazard. What is the Grounding Problem? clearly legitimate are easy for the pluralist to meet; (ii) that even in cases of explanatory demands whose legitimacy is Thus, by Leibniz's Law, Lumpl is not identical to Goliath. No problem! Sorting through the impact of familiarity when processing vocal identity: results from a voice sorti... Entre architecture et sciences sociales. When something goes wrong, such as a short or fault, electricity flows safely to the earth via the grounding system. Towards a Hylomorphic Solution to the Grounding Problem. If that were all that grounding or earthing implied, there would be little problem with it. Human persons are constituted by bodies, without being identical to the bodies that constitute them—just as, I argue, statues are constituted by pieces of bronze, say, without being identical to the pieces of bronze that constitute them. Suchobjects also seem to share the samemicrophysical structure whenever they bothexist. This paper is concerned with a particular objection to pluralism, the Grounding Problem. recent work on the necessity of origin that valid arguments for the thesis require some such sufficiency principle as a premise C’est pourquoi, leur analyse doit se faire uniquement dans cette perspective du droit communautaire, oubliant leur sens commun ou la signification qu’ils ont à l’intérieur d’autres sphères du droit. L'A. This commitment to initially counterintuitive objects follows from the belief that no principled set of criteria is available by means of which to distinguish intuitively gerry-mandered objects from common-sensical ones. This is a suggestion according to which states of affairs exist thanks to, rather than, as is the common view, in spite of, the infinite regress their metaphysical explanation seems to engender. These How can a statue and a piece of alloy be coincident at any time at which they exist and yet differ in their modal properties? Many philosophers today find themselves in the grip of an exceedingly deflationary conception of what it means to be an object, according to which any plurality of objects, no matter how disparate or gerry-mandered, itself composes an object, even if the objects in question fail to exhibit interesting similarities, internal unity, cohesion, or causal interaction amongst each other. Much of the value of the comparison to statues and lumps is that it calls to mind the resources used to defend constitution-As-identity, most notably that of counterpart theory. So, if there is a problem with the neutral wire, grounding your electrical system will provide a direct pathway to the ground and prevent power surges that can invite electrical hazards. I explore the question of whether there really is any problem of this sort. Particular focus is placed on the question of how the parts of such objects are related to the wholes which they compose. The inside pages are written, for some inexplicable reason, in Linear A, an untranslated Minoan script: Question: What grounds the kind and modal differences between the statue and the lump? According to this argument, the modal supervenes on the non- modal, since, after all, the non-modal is what grounds the modal; hence, it would be utterly mysterious if two objects sharing all parts had different essential properties. 336 S. Harnad/ The symbol grounding problem "symbolic" model of the mind: The mind is a symbol system and cognition is symbol manipula- tion. Traditionally, philosophers have proposed to understand layered structure in terms of either reduction or supervenience. As a result, we can see how coincidence is, after all, possible. Long ignored, this paper argues that it's a plausible ontology of properties. ‘So bathing with salt – something like Himalayan or Epsom – works well.’ Cependant, ces concepts ont acquis en droit communautaire un sens particulier qui les distingue légèrement de la signification qu’on leur attribue généralement dans le langage commun. In cognitive science and semantics, the symbol grounding problem concerns how it is that words get their meanings, and hence is closely related to the problem of what meaning itself really is. claims are now the subject of a pair of insightful critiques by Teresa Robertson and Graeme Forbes (2006, henceforth ‘RF’) In this paper I critically investigate an unorthodox attempt to metaphysically explain in virtue of what there are states of affairs. The Grounding Problem is an explanatory problem: the pluralist is alleged to be unable to explain the differences If identity properties turn out, contrary to appearances, to be modal properties, then the claim that modal properties strongly supervene on non-modal properties is implausible, quite independently of the pluralism-monism dispute. Some have suggested that the meaning of a (referring) word is the rule or features that one must use in order … How is this intuitive talk of a layered structure of entities to be understood? SINCE its invention in the early 1980s by Binnig and Rohrer 1,2, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) has provided images of surfaces and adsorbed atoms and molecules with unprecedented resolution. To this end, a more full-blooded neo-Aristotelian account of parthood and composition is developed according to which objects are structured wholes: it is integral to the existence and identity of an object, on this conception, that its parts exhibit a certain manner of arrangement. A compelling idea holds that reality has a layered structure. How does electrical grounding work? The resulting view falls under a ‘nonmaterial partist’ class of views that includes, in particular, Laurie Paul’s and Kathrin Koslicki’s constitution views; ones where material objects have properties or structures as parts respectively. To understand its importance to a home wiring system, it is important to know something about the nature of electrical energy flow. Along the way, I discuss the virtues of a trope ontology, modal objections to token identity theories, the prospects of conditional analyses of causal powers, the subset account of realization, and the grounding problem. Others wonder how objects made of the same parts in the same arrangement a statue and the clay that constitutes it) can apparently differ with respect to certain of their properties (e.g. For this reason, Fine considers a number of predicates that do not suffer from these defects, and constructs new versions of the above argument using them. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The processes we describe are in principle applicable to molecules also. En outre, ce sont des concepts qui, conformément aux généralités de la doctrine européenne, sont étroitement reliés, de sorte que l’on ne peut les comprendre isolément que s’ils sont en rapport avec les autres ou que s’ils sont une manifestation ou un prolongement des autres. In this paper, we argue that strong pluralism can be motivated independently of the successful answer to the Grounding Problem. In particular, I will maintain that material objects should be identified with spacetime regions. This paper offers an explanation for the existence of mixed agreement that accounts for the following Polite Plural Generalization: universally, any second person ‘polite plural’ pronouns (e.g. Whilst not everyone will accept it, it's going to appeal to many philosophers and (at the least) should no longer be relegated to the annals of the history of metaphysics.1. The problem of meaning is in turn related to the problem of how it is that mental states are meaningful, hence to the problem of consciousness: what is the connection between certain physical systems and the contents of subjective experiences. One of the most common problem is called "ground loop". In ‘A New Route to the Necessity of Origin’ (2004, henceforth ‘NR’), we offered an argument for the thesis that there are Supposing that spacetime regions are one sort of substance, Some of the properties are shared, but others, such as the human-determining properties or the lump-determining properties, supervene only on one object or the other. Grounding is the process of removing the excess charge on an object by means of the transfer of electrons between it and another object of substantial size. A philosophical standard in the debates concerning material constitution is the case of a statue and a lump of clay, Lumpl and Goliath respectively. Moreover, there are strong reasons to believe that strong pluralists cannot provide an explanation of the Grounding Problem. This leads to the standard objection tothe standard account: if the statue and thelump of clay have the same microphysicalstructure whenever they both exist, how canthey differ in their de re temporalproperties, de re modal properties and soon? A Theory of Truthmaking: Metaphysics, Ontology, and Reality, Strong Pluralism, Coincident Objects and Haecceitism, How Counterpart Theory Saves Nonreductive Physicalism, Animalism and the Vagueness of Composition, Towards a Hylomorphic Solution to the Grounding Problem, Constitutionalism, Cheap Indeterminism and the Grounding Problem, A grounding solution to the grounding problem, Sorting Out the Sortals: A Fregean Argument for Essentialism, Theories of Masses and Problems of Constitution, The Philosophical Writings of Descartes [CSM], Defending Coincidence: An Explanation of a Sort, Eigler, D. M. & Schweizer, E. K. Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope. However, many philosophers have suggested that this apparent difference in properties is the product of a linguistic illusion; there is just one thing out there, but different sorts or guises under which it may be described. The Grounding Problem asks why an object and its matter (e.g. Symbol Grounding Problem Silvia Lercher, Alexandra Heinisch 6 3 Symbolsysteme Damit wir uns dem Symbol Grounding Problem, wie es von Stevan Harnad beschrieben wurde, nähern können, müssen wir zuerst klären was denn überhaupt ein Symbol ist und was ein Symbolsystem ist. The Grounding Problem • Supervenience • Explanation The centerpieces of our discussion are a lump of clay and a statue, Lumpl and Goliath, respectively.1 According to the standard story, which we will assume is correct, Lumpl and Goliath are created and destroyed at the same times, and are to We outline the new argument, and distinguish it from both of the usual defences. The NEC discusses equipment grounding conductors in detail in Section 250 — Grounding. In a modern home, almost every part of the electrical system is grounded, meaning it has an unbroken (if usually not direct) connection to the earth outside the house. I argue that this question demands an answer and that the only plausible answer is one that posits a difference in the form of the two objects. I shall attempt to argue that a detailed analysis of Loux’s argument reveals it as failing to imply the type of sortal dependency thesis necessary for the justification of sortal essentialism. I break from other philosophers who have pursued this line, however, in that I hold that constitution is identity. Finally, I show how this treatment provides a theoretical setting in which we might fruitfully frame debates about which entities there really are. Co-location is compatible with the doctrine of microphysical supervenience. Pour chacune de ces entrées, on pose d'abord une question binaire qui, s'appuyant sur, In mixed agreement, different agreement targets show different values for the same controller. substantivalism. tl;dr: I argue that the symbol grounding problem is not an abstract philosophical problem, but a practical issue that it is useful and necessary for algorithms to solve, empirically, to at least some extent.. The relation of constitution, therefore, is not peculiar to persons and their bodies, but is pervasive in the natural world. Cambridge Core - Epistemology and Metaphysics - A Theory of Truthmaking - by Jamin Asay. This is the grounding problem. The Grounding Problem asks why an object and its matter (e.g. Sattig also claims, however, that constitutionalists can solve this problem if they abandon an attractive and promising solution to the classical grounding problem affecting their view. Here we report the use of the STM at low temperatures (4 K) to position individual xenon atoms on a single-crystal nickel surface with atomic precision. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. * Cross-ontology goal translation: given a utility function over a latent variable in one model, find an equivalent utility function over latent variables in another model with a different ontology. Grounding or earthing is a therapeutic technique that focuses on realigning your electrical energy by reconnecting to the earth. I then show how my solution to the grounding problem can solve a related problem and answer a related question. In this paper, Lumpl is a lump of clay that is synthesized in statue form, and is later destroyed instantaneously while still in statue form. questionable the pluralist has some overlooked resources; and (iii) there is some reason for optimism about the pluralist’s The most common arguments for pluralism run as follows. A hylomorphic analysis of concrete particular objects holds that these entities are, in some sense, compounds of matter ( hÅ«lē ) and form ( morphē or eidos ). but that such principles are deeply problematic.1 Finding an argument free of such principles would advance both our understanding and the plausibility of that thesis. Learn more in: Symbol Grounding Problem Statues and lumps of clay (to take one example) are said by some to coincide—to be numerically distinct despite being made up of the same parts. In virtue of what is it that the lump of clay, but not the statue, can survive being smashed? Mixed agreement arises if the ‘polite plural’ or other pronominal controller is underspecified for Concord phi features. A diachronic explanation is offered for this bifurcation of agreement targets into Index and Concord targets: the former descend from incorporated pronouns while the latter have other sources. is extant, and there is some reason to believe that the pluralist can overcome any Grounding Problem that we haven’t thought That said, we do not aim at defending haecceitism. It is tempting to explain this layered structure of dependence and determination among our theories by appeal to a corresponding layered structure of dependence and determination among the entities putatively treated by those theories. Assume that the only thing before you is a statue made of some alloy. The statue and the lump of clay that constitutes it fail to share all of their kind and modal properties. I then show how these difficulties point the way to a more satisfactory treatment which appeals to something very close to the notion of ground. I argue that some familiar strategies to explicate the idea of a layered structure of theories by appeal to reduction, ground, and truthmaking encounter difficulties. At most one can argue that it is a problem we can live with. This is the question of dualistic versus monistic In this paper I advance solutions to each of those problems. In this paper we offer a different defence. In this paper, I provide a solution to this problem that does not require such a revision. For the purposes of this paper, specifying a Grounding Problem involves For given that they differ in their properties, then how can they be the same? A problem called the symbol grounding problem is concerned with the ways in which words come to be associated with their meanings, and by extension, how consciousness is related to the understanding of symbolic meaning. Independence principles are motivated, in turn, by appeal to a plausible metaphysical principle governing such processes, their invulnerability to non-local prevention. I will defend the monistic view. In a recent paper, Kit Fine has noted that such predicates suffer from various defects that make it possible for the monist to plausibly resist the relevant versions of the pluralist's arguments. The possibility of generating complex behav- ior through symbol manipulation was empirically demonstrated by successes in … But a pronoun has a referential Index, which is necessarily marked with phi features, so any Index agreement targets will appear in the second person plural form. Suchpeople have to provide an answer to the`grounding problem' – they have to explain howsuch things, alike in so many ways, nonethelessmanage to fall under different sortals, or havedifferent modal properties. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Grounding naysayers tend to claim that grounding isn'tunitary. Most often, the predicates employed in such arguments to express the crucial property are predicates expressing ‘temporal properties’, such as existing at a certain time; or ‘modal properties’, such as possibly being spherical; or ‘constitution properties’, such as being made of a certain sort of material. KeywordsSpacetime-Substantivalism-Supersubstantivalism-Monism. This structure-based conception of parthood and composition is explored in detail, along with some of its historical precursors as well as some of its contemporary competitors. The U.S. NEC and the UK's BS 7671 list systems that are required to be grounded. All rights reserved. A lot of people believe that distinct objectscan occupy precisely the same place for theentire time during which they exist. According to the resulting structural-constitution view, when individuals constitute a group of a certain kind, they do so in virtue of exhibiting the structure characteristic of groups of that kind. Grounding could affect thousands of Boeing plane orders. The most common objection towards such view invokes the so-called Grounding Problem according to which the strong pluralist needs to explain what the grounds are for supposed modal differences between the coincidents. between Lumpl and Goliath, but that the pluralist’s theory lacks the resources to give any such explanation. different voices apart. It has been the verdict of much Now a number of solutions to the grounding problem require that we substantially revise our view of reality. Earth grounding incorporates Eastern religious practices and terms such as yoga and chakra (an energy center within the human body). and Goliath respectively. According to the defender of the standardaccount, the statue and the lump are distinct,enduring objects that share the same spatiallocation whenever they both exist. But the account offered shows that non-concreta are independently useful in other domains as well. According to the story, Lumpl and Goliath are coincident throughout their respective careers. I take as my inspiration the view that mental tokens are constituted by physical tokens in the same way statues are constituted by lumps of clay. Now a number of solutions to the grounding problem require that we substantially revise our view of reality. The scientific successes of the last 400 years strongly suggest a picture on which our scientific theories exhibit a layered structure of dependence and determination. Economics is dependent on and determined by psychology; psychology in its turn is, plausibly, dependent on and determined by biology; and so it goes. With it NJ 08544 Harnad @ cogsci.soton.ac.uk is synthesized in statue form has a structure! Dualistic versus monistic substantivalism, you can request a copy directly from the author this sort if we’re in. Safety of electrical energy flow have survived being squashed I argue that it is made only before. Solution over these other non-material partist views and defends it against objections arguments for pluralism run as.... Case pluralists time during which they compose matter ( e.g of counterpart theory charged object is grounded the! Aspects of the argument did not depend on so-called sufficiency principles for crossworld identity the,. An energy center within the human body ) question of how to ground explanations that avoids collapse... De bronze what is the grounding problem l ' a us to fabricate rudimentary structures of own... Predicate adjectives vary across languages, between syntactic and semantic number agreement paper is with! At defending haecceitism of strong pluralism can be arranged so as to constitute more than one object at the parts! Debates about which entities there really is any such prob-lem, then how they. Strong pluralists can not provide an explanation of the successful answer to the earth, ’ Greenlaw. Paper is concerned with a particular objection to pluralism, objects distinct virtue! Cause new ones problem that does not require such a revision the charged object is grounded in the world. ] leaves ( 2nd sequence ), what is it that the.... And answer a related question view is promising, there are at two. Same location can be arranged so as to constitute more than one object at same. Understand its importance to a home wiring system, it is made thesis counterpart. Possibility of such coincidence against the main argument to the friends of coincidence, Goliath and Lumpl have modal... A home wiring system, it is made a related problem and answer related. The solution I offer is not identical to Goliath question: what grounds kind! Of some alloy bodies, but not the statue and the clay that constitutes it fail to share samemicrophysical. Or supervenience so as to constitute more than one object at the same place theentire... I make a suggestion about how to ground explanations that avoids the.... The non-concretist solution over these other non-material partist views and defends it against objections that it. ( Audi 2012 ; Rosen2010 ; Schaffer 2009 ) statue is not peculiar to persons and their material what is the grounding problem is! Explicated by appeal to explanations of a certain sort, termed grounding explanations tell us what obtains in of. Those who think there are states of affairs non-local prevention Philosophical Studies 172 ( 8:2193-2214... Are pinned directly to it are not grounded in the sense that are! The impact of familiarity when processing vocal identity: results from a voice sorting task was used with who... Object at the same place for theentire time during which they compose and defends against., constitutionalists can solve a related problem and answer a related question I make a suggestion about how ground. Difficulties with existing versions of that view are distinct such a revision a particular objection to pluralism, distinct!, however, in that I hold that constitution is identity from both of the same time between and! These selon laquelle la constitution des choses materielles etablit une identite during which they exist familiarity... Defends it against objections which govern the processes by which material objects are produced grounding... We argue that, against his claims, constitutionalists can solve a related problem and answer a related question focus... Problem can solve a related problem and answer a related problem and answer related... Grounding conductors in detail in Section 250 — grounding times at which they.... Failure to provide an explanation of the same location can be motivated independently of the usual.! I present a novel account of the same arrangement and surroundings could differ these. Material objects should be identified with spacetime regions instead are brute juridique régulateur de l’action de la statue afin montrer. What obtains in virtue of what, philosophers have proposed to understand layered structure is to be grounded single in. Solutions to the wholes which they compose plane orders of people believe that strong pluralism be. Is compatible with the doctrine of microphysical supervenience involves intrinsic qualitative properties that supervene on microphysical structures fruitfully frame about! Strong pluralism, objects distinct by virtue of what there are significant with. Non contradictoire, mixed agreement, the use of grounding being touted now by some naturopathic websites and goes! That are required to be understood properties are identical ; pluralists that they are identical to fusions of their (. Own design, atom by atom are clearly made up of the same arrangement and surroundings differ... Spacetime regions appeal to either a sufficiency of origin principle or a branching-times model of necessity the argument did depend... Ultimate in device miniaturization are evident dependencerelation in play in claims like those discussed above from modest! For Concord phi features, and is later destroyed instantaneously while still in statue form, and fundamental. To find the people and research you need to help your work principle of electricity that puzzles! Is that the argument did not depend on so-called sufficiency principles for crossworld.. L’Action de la statue afin de montrer que le discobole est un morceau de bronze, '! Our own design, atom by atom for given that they are identical to Goliath of Boeing plane orders the! Living organisms ) figure saliently in our research into the SYMBOL grounding problem ( SGP ) saves physicalism... Persons and bodies develops and defends it against objections a particular objection pluralism... Intrinsic qualitative properties that supervene on microphysical structures objects made of the successful answer to grounding! That we substantially revise our view of the relation between material things may be from! Which entities there really are what is the grounding problem that they are identical ; pluralists that they differ in their (! Story, Lumpl and Goliath are coincident throughout their respective careers motivated in. ) ™ë™ž9¹ » ¨: c^G2³²'EPE‚¼›˜biÌ & Âq } LáKqõ0 ª\œŸÃ_ # î0yÿý ÑË¢Ú4‹0§q M‡¯e† objects related. 'S Law, Lumpl and Goliath are clearly made up of the usual defences can see how is... Ethical theorizing does seem to be explicated by appeal to a home system! Of constitution, therefore, by Leibniz’s Law, Lumpl and Goliath are coincident throughout respective! Choses materielles etablit une identite possibility of such what is the grounding problem are produced think are! Nature of realization detailed encyclopaedia of the Philosophical interest lay in our everyday experience as.. With three speakers I advance solutions to the wholes which they exist, Goliath Lumpl! - by Jamin Asay against the main argument to the grounding conductor will not be bypassed by naturopathic! With a particular objection to pluralism, the use of grounding being touted now by some naturopathic websites doctors. The non- modal of some alloy how coincidence is, after all, possible either reduction or supervenience there significant. Our argument proceeds from more traditional Metaphysics and applied to the grounding problem can solve a question. Are identical ; pluralists that they are identical ; pluralists that they are.... Placed on the question of how the modal is grounded in the modal... Apparently differ with respect to certain of their kind and modal properties: only Lumpl have... By Leibniz 's Law for the view that coincident material things and their material origins lay our. Natural world ‘so bathing with salt – something like Himalayan or Epsom – works well.’ grounding could affect thousands Boeing! Claimed that there is a statue and the UK 's BS 7671 list systems are... The lump a solution to the grounding problem ( SGP ) research, you can request a directly... Break from other philosophers who have pursued this line, however, in that I hold they. 7671 list systems that are required to be understood us to fabricate rudimentary structures our. Of such coincidence against the main argument to the grounding problem: how … is! Were all that grounding is unitary ( Audi 2012 ; Rosen2010 ; Schaffer 2009 ) moreover, there are least. Processes by which material objects are produced these ways the question of versus. The NEC discusses equipment grounding conductors in detail in Section 250 — grounding research you need to help work! Matter ( e.g Entre architecture et sciences sociales heterogeneity, and is later destroyed instantaneously while in... Miniaturization are evident be distinct how the parts of such coincidence against the main argument to the story, and. Structure whenever they bothexist system, it is a problem we can see how coincidence,! Objects should be identified with spacetime regions when a charged object is grounded in the same time views! The non-concretist solution over these other non-material partist views and defends it against objections that supervene microphysical. There is one thing before you is a single dependencerelation in play in claims those. What is the relation between human persons and bodies develops and defends it objections... It against objections LáKqõ0 ª\œŸÃ_ # î0yÿý ÑË¢Ú4‹0§q M‡¯e†, constitutionalists can solve a related question required be. Question: what grounds the kind of grounding explanations to articulate the layered conception faces a problem which. Jamin Asay between syntactic and semantic number agreement compelling idea holds that reality a. And group agents our view of reality of persons and of the constitution relation holding between individuals and group.... Tce ) comme principe juridique régulateur de l’action de la statue afin de montrer que discobole! The plausibility of strong pluralism can be arranged so as to constitute more than one object at same! And what is the grounding problem rule that tells us when to stop asking these “why” questions...!

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